# Back to Bletchley Park   We have gone quantum. A collaborator of ours built this quantum circuit to compute the factorization of a Bavs RSA key and took note of the results. They are now stored in her server (https://qc.pwn2.win) inside the /a/N path, where a is the group generator and N is the modulus. Unfortunately we could not get in touch with her lately, so we need your help understanding what she did. Once you figure out how the circuit works and discover what are the values of a and N, we can see the results from her calculations and use them to decrypt the message.

Note: We know that the message was originally encrypted with the following commands:

openssl rsautl -encrypt -oaep -pubin -inkey public.pem -in aes256.key -out aes256.key.enc openssl aes-256-cbc -base64 -in secret_message.txt -out secret_message.enc -k \$(cat aes256.key)

5 hours

# Solution

## TL;DR

1. Split the qasm file
2. Extract N
3. Plot the calling graph
4. Extract the classical part
5. Simulate it to get a
6. Get the period and public key from the server
7. Factorize N

We have gone quantum.

In this chal, we have a crazy 10GB (40GB in 1024bits ver.) qasm file describing a enormous quantum circuit. As the description says, the circuit is built for factoring RSA key. It may be an implementation of Shor's algorithm.

The following writeup is for 640bits version, it should be similar in 1024bits, but gate/reg name will be different.

## Basic qasm

1. qreg: a quantum register (e.g. qubit), initialized to $|0\rangle$.
2. creg: a classical register, e.g. bit, initialized to $0$.
3. x: NOT in quantum.
4. h: Hadamard gate, a gate for creating superposition or some crazy quantum things.
5. cx: XOR in quantum, cx a,o equals o ^= a in classic.
6. ccx: AND in quantum, cx a,b,o equals o ^= (a & b) in classic.
7. swap: Swap two input qubits.

## Tear the monster

To dealing with the qasm file, I split each gate to seperate file, outputing 3881 files. (Script)

The most interesting file is main, which is the part not enclosed in gate xxx { ... }. It looks like:

qreg af;
qreg a;
qreg n;
qreg kk;
qreg aa;
qreg ab;
qreg an;
qreg ac;
qreg yv;

creg c;

creg cr0;
creg cr1;
...
creg cr640;
creg cr641;

x n;
x n;
x n;
x n;
...
x n;
x n;
x n;
x n;

sqgate_3858 a,af,n,ac,an,yv,kk,aa,ab;

h yv;

sqgate_3850 af,a,n,kk,an,ac,yv

measure an -> c;
h yv;
measure yv->cr0;
if(cr0==1) u1(pi/2) yv;
h yv;
measure yv->cr1;
if(cr0==1) u1(pi/4) yv;
if(cr1==1) u1(pi/2) yv;
h yv;
measure yv->cr2;
if(cr0==1) u1(pi/8) yv;
if(cr1==1) u1(pi/4) yv;
if(cr2==1) u1(pi/2) yv;
h yv;
...


The part x n[...]; seems to be an constructor of variable n. According to its name, it might be $N$ which is one of our target.

There's also an interesting variable a, but it isn't initialized directly.

After init n, it calls sqgate_3858, applies hadamard gate on yv, calls sqgate_3850, and then extracts the output by measuring.

Note that although yv is passed to sqgate_3858, there isn't any reference to it in sqgate_3858.

## Find the generator

According to the wikipedia, Shor's algorithm is composed of these steps:

1. Classical parts: Generate a random number $a$, which is coprime to $N$.
2. Prepare initial state: Apply hadamard gate to zero state.
3. Apply $f(x)$: Change initial state to $|x\rangle\ |f(x)\rangle$.
4. Apply QFT.
5. Measuring output to find period.

Compare to the code in last part, sqgate_3858 seems to be the classical part, h yv is preparing the initial state, sqgate_3850 applied f(x) and QFT.

When I plot the calling graph (Script1 and Script2), I can confirm that sqgate_3858 is actually a classical circuit. There isn't any call to hadamard gate or any gate that will create superposition. The primitive gates it called are: x, cx, ccx, swap.

We can simulate this part and extract the state of those register. Here's the script, and the output is:

a: 140...565
su: 0
n: 362...081
o: 1
x: 1
y: 0
sc: 0
aa: 0
ab: 0


We got $a$ and $N$ now.

## Factorize N

Opening the webpage https://qc.pwn2.win/140...565/362...081 as the challenge description said, it gave us the period $r$ and $e$.

According to the algorithm: \begin{aligned} & a^r = 1 \mod N \\ \implies & a^r - 1 = 0 \mod N \\ \implies & (a^{r/2} - 1) (a^{r/2} + 1) = 0 \mod N \\ \end{aligned}

There are three possibilities: $N$ divides $(a^{r/2} - 1)$, $N$ divides $(a^{r/2} + 1)$, or $p$ divides $(a^{r/2} - 1)$,

To check this, we can calculate $p = \text{gcd}(a^{r/2} - 1, N) = \text{gcd}((a^{r/2} - 1 \mod N), N)$ And then we found $p$ is not equals to $N$. It means that is a factor of $N$ !!!

Next step is to construct the private key with RsaCtfTool, and decrypt the flag with openssl.